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Numerous studies in neuroscience and developmental psychology confirm benefits of visual-motor training. Visual-motor excercises improve visual motor integration and create functional connections among visual and motor brain regions. 

Visual-motor excercises



According to research visual-motor excercises creates functional connections among visual and motor brain regions!

Visual-motor excercises



Neuroscience and developmental psychology: fine motor skills, non-verbal intelligence and executive functioning are significantly interrelated.


Neurophysiological and neuroimaging evidence suggest that the prefrontal cortex, the cerebellum, and the connecting structures get co-activated in certain cognitive and motor tasks.

Visual-motor excercises



Research link visual-motor integration to academic achievement in different areas, including math, reading, and spelling skills.


Improved visual-motor coordination is associated with higher academic achievement in school; while poor visual-motor integration can result in delays and problems in learning and functioning in the school.

Visual-motor excercises and


see: James, K. H.  (2010). Sensori-motor experience leads to changes in visual processing in the developing brain. Developmental Science, 13 (2), 279-288.​

see: James, K. H. and Engelhardt, L. (2012). The effects of handwriting experience on functional brain development in pre-literate children.

Trends in Neuroscience and Education, 1 (1), 32-42.


see: Vinci-Booher, S., James, T. W., & James, K. H. (2016). Visual-motor functional connectivity in preschool children emerges after handwriting experience. Trends in Neuroscience and Education, 5(3), 107-120.

Visual-motor excercises and


see: Diamond, A. (2000). Close interrelation of motor development and cognitive development and of the cerebellum and prefrontal cortex.

Child Development, 71, 44–56.


see: Osorio-Valencia, E., et al. (2018). Early motor development and

cognitive abilities among Mexican preschoolers.

Child Neuropsychology, 24(8): 1015-1025.

see: Roebers, C. M., Röthlisberger, M., Neuenschwander, R., Cimeli, P., Michel, E., & Jäger, K. (2014). The Relation between Cognitive and Motor Performance and Their Relevance for Children’s Transition to School: A Latent Variable Approach. Human Movement Science, 33, 284-297.

Visual-motor excercises and


see: Africa, E. K. and Deventer, K. J. (2017). A motor-skills programme to enhance visual motor integration of selected pre-school learners.

Early Child Development and Care, 187 (12): 1960-1970.


see: Banumathe, K. R., Sharma, P. S. V. N. , Binu, V. S., Guruprasad, V. (2018). Relationship between Visual Motor Integration and Academic Performance in Elementary School Children. Online Journal of Health Allied Sciences, 16(1).


see: Barnhardt, C., E. Borsting, et al. (2005). Relationship between visual-motor integration and spatial organization of written language and math.

Optometry and Vision Science, 82(2): 138-143.


see: Bart, O., Hajami, D., & Bar-Haim, Y. (2007). Predicting school adjustment from motor abilities in kindergarten. 

Infant and Child Development, 16, 597–615.


see: Bonoti, F., Vlachos, F. and Metallidou, P. (2005). Writing and Drawing Performance of School Age Children. Is There Any Relationship?

School Psychology International, 26 (2), 243-255.

see: Cameron, C. E., Brock, L. L., Murrah, W. M., Bell, L. H., Worzalla, S. L., Grissmer, D., et al (2012). Fine motor skills and executive function both contribute to Kindergarten achievement. Child Development, 83, 1229–1244.


see: Carlson, A. G., Rowe, E., & Curby, T. W. (2013). Disentangling fine motor skills’ relation to academic achievement: The relative contributions of

visual-spatial integration and visual-motor coordination. 

Journal of Genetic Psychology, 174, 514-533.


see: Daly, C. J., Kelley, G. T., & Krauss, A. (2003). Brief report—Relationship between visual-motor integration and handwriting skills of

children in kindergarten: A modified replication study.

American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 57, 459–462.


see: Doyen, A.-L., Lambert, E., Dumas, F. and Carlier, M. (2017). Manual performance as predictor of literacy acquisition: A study from kindergarten to Grade 1. Cognitive Development, 43, 80-90.


see: Duran, C. A. K., et al. (2018). Unique and compensatory associations of executive functioning and visuomotor integration with mathematics performance in early elementary school. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 42: 21-30.

see: Grissmer, D., Grimm, K. J., Aiyer, S. M., Murrah, W. M., & Steele, J. S. (2010). Fine motor skills and early comprehension of the world: Two new school readiness indicators. Developmental Psychology, 46, 1008–1017.


see: Oberer, N., Gashaj, V. andRoebers, C. M. (2018). Executive functions, visual-motor coordination, physical fitness and academic achievement: Longitudinal relations in typically developing children. Human Movement Science, 58: 69-79.

see: Pagani, L. S., Fithpatrick, C., Archambault, I., & Janosz, M. (2010). School readiness and later achievement: A French Canadian replication and extension. Developmental Psychology, 46, 984–994.


see: Pieters, S., et al. (2012). Behind mathematical learning disabilities:

What about visual perception and motor skills?

Learning and Individual Differences 22(4): 498-504.


see: Son, S.-H., & Meisels, S. J. (2006). The relationship of young children’s

motor skills to later reading and math achievement.

Merill-Palmer Quarterly, 52, 755–778.


see: Sulik, M. J., Haft, S. L. and Obradiović, J. (2018). Visual-Motor Integration, Executive Functions, and Academic Achievement: Concurrent

and Longitudinal Relations in Late Elementary School.

Early Education and Development, 29(7): 956-970.​


see: Taylor Kulp, M. (1999). Relationship between visual motor integration skill and academic performance in kindergarten through third grade.

Optometry and Vision Science, 76(3): 159-163.


see: Weil, M. J. and S. J. Amundson (1994). Relationship between visuomotor and handwriting skills of children in kindergarten.

American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 48(11): 982-988




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